UNDERSTANDING NORTHERN NIGERIA AND BOKO HARAM

CIA INTELLIGENCE BRIEF FOR US EMBASSY PERSONNEL DEPLOYED TO NIGERIA. March 10 1994

NIGERIA 1. THIS IS THE SECOND OF FOUR END-OF-TOUR, END-OF-POST CABLES FROM KADUNA, GIVING AN OVERVIEW OF NORTHERN NIGERIA. THE OTHER THREE WILL DEAL RESPECTIVELY WITH THE COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC CLIMATE, THE CULTURAL SCENE, AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND CONDITIONS. THEY ARE MEANT FOR ORIENTATION OF OFFICERS ARRIVING IN THE SUMMER OF 1994 TO TAKE UP REPORTING POSTS IN ABUJA, AS WELL AS TO FULFILL POST REPORTING PLAN REQUIREMENTS. 2. SUMMARY: POLITICAL TRADITIONS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA, AS ESEWHERE, STRETCH BACK TO THE PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD. UNLIKE OTHER SECTIONS OF THE COUNTRY, HOWEVER, THE LARGER-THAN-LIFE FIGURE OF THE FIRST PREMIER OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, THE SARDAUNA OF SOKOTO, CONTINUES TO HANG OVER POLITICAL FIGURES AND ORGANIZATIONS IN THE NORTH. EQUALLY, NORTHERN POLITICS ARE PULLED IN CONFLICTING DIRECTIONS BY THE CONTINUED INFLUENCE OF THE TRADITIONAL RULERS AND THE HABITS OF DEFERENCE TO ELDERS AND REFUSAL TO SPEAK ILL OF THOSE IN AUTHORITY. THE NORTH IS HOME TO TWO STRONG TRADITIONS — MOSLEM CONSERVATISM AND A POPULIST RADICALISM. IF ADDITION, GENERATIONAL FISSURES APPEARED IN THE ABORTED TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY WHICH COULD PROVE AN EVEN STRONGER CHALLENGE TO TRADITION AND THE ELDERS IF THE PROGRAM EVER GETS ON TRACK AGAIN. ONCE POLITICS RESUME OPENLY, THERE ARE SEVERAL PERSONS AND GROUPS READY TO PICK UP WHERE IBB LEFT THEM LAST JUNE 23. END SUMMARY. A LITTLE HISTORY —————- 3. IN THE RUN-UP TO INDEPENDENCE IN THE 1950S, THE NORTHERN REGION SPAWNED THREE DISTINCT POLITICAL MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE STILL LARGELY MIRRORED IN CURRENT POLITICS. THE ONE THAT WAS ULTIMATELY VICTORIOUS IN THE NORTHERN REGIONAL ELECTIONS AND THE FORERUNNER FOR THE NATIONAL PARTY OF NIGERIA (NPN) OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC AND THE NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CONVENTION (NRC) OF THE SECOND-AND-A-HALF REPUBLIC, WAS THE NPC, NORTHERN PEOPLES CONGRESS. THIS PARTY WAS THE HOME OF THE TRADITIONAL, HAUSA AND FULANI CONSERVATIVES AND STILL PROVIDES THE MODEL FOR SOUTHERN ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT “NORTHERN POLITICAL DOMINATION.” 4. THERE WERE, HOWEVER, TWO OTHER POLITICAL MOVEMENTS WITH CHARISMATIC LEADERS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA. ONE WAS THE RADICAL POPULIST NORTHERN ELEMENTS PROGRESSIVE UNION (NEPU) WHOSE LEADER WAS AMINU KANO. THIS GROUP WAS CENTERED IN KANO WHICH WAS AND IS STILL TODAY HOME TO POLITICAL CURRENTS DIRECTLY AT ODDS WITH THE NORTHERN “ESTABLISHMENT.” THIS STRAIN OF POLITICAL THOUGHT ACCOUNTED FOR THE STRONG VOTE FOR ABIOLA IN KANO ON JUNE 12, AS WELL AS FOR THE NEARLY EVEN SPLIT BETWEEN NRC AND SDP IN THE CIVILIAN STATE GOVERNMENTS OF KANO, KADUNA, AND KATSINA THAT HAVE JUST BEEN ABOLISHED. NEPU WAS THE FOREFATHER OF THE PEOPLES REDEMPTION PARTY (PRP) OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC (ALSO HEADED BY AMINU KANO), BUT ITS HEIRS SPLIT IN KANO AND KADUNA BETWEEN THE SDP (PEOPLES’ SOLIDARITY PARTY (PSP) FACTION) AND NRC WHEN THE PARTIES WERE ORGANIZED BY BABANGIDA IN 1989. MALLAM AMINU KANO DIED IN 1983, BUT IS STILL WIDELY REVERED BY NORTHERNERS WHO SAW HIM AS AN INCORRUPTIBLE POLITICIAN OF SIMPLE TASTES AND SPARTAN LIFESTYLE, QUITE AT ODDS WITH THE NIGERIAN NORM. 5. THE THIRD POLITICAL MOVEMENT WAS THE UNITED MIDDLE BELT CONGRESS LED BY JOSEPH TARKA (A TIV FROM CURRENT BENUE STATE). TARKA PRESSED STRONGLY FOR A FOURTH REGION COMPRISING THE MIDDLE BELT MINORITIES (NOWADAYS FOUND IN TARABA, BENUE, KOGI, PLATEAU, NIGER, KWARA, AND SOUTHERN KADUNA STATES) BUT LOST OUT. WE HAVE BEEN TOLD HIS PLAN WAS SHOT DOWN LARGELY AT THE INSTANCE OF ANTHONY ENAHORO (NOW THE HEAD OF THE MOVEMENT FOR NATIONAL REDEMPTION), AN INDIGENE OF EDO STATE. OF COURSE, NOT LONG AFTER INDEPENDENCE, ENAHORO MANAGED TO PUSH THROUGH THE CREATION OF A FOURTH REGION FOR HIS OWN ETHNIC GROUP, AN EVENT WHICH HAS NOT BEEN FORGOTTEN IN THESE PARTS. TARKA WAS ELECTED TO THE SECOND REPUBLIC SENATE BUT DIED IN 198O. NEVERTHELESS, THE MIDDLE BELT CONSIDERS ITSELF TO HAVE A SEPARATE POLITICAL EXISTENCE FROM THE FAR NORTH (WITH PERHAPS THE EXCEPTION OF NIGER STATE), AND VOTED FAIRLY STRONGLY FOR THE NIGERIA PEOPLES’ PARTY (NPP) (OR, IN BORNO AND GONGOLA, THE GREAT NIGERIA PEOPLES’ PARTY (GNPP)) IN 1979 AND SDP IN THE 1991-93 ELECTIONS. THE SARDAUNA ———— 6. AT INDEPENDENCE, THE NORTHERN REGION GOVERNMENT WAS CAPTURED BY THE NPC, WHICH ELECTED SIR AHMADU BELLO, THE SARDAUNA OF SOKOTO, AS PREMIER. GIVEN THE FACT THAT THE LAND MASS OF THE NORTHERN REGION WAS AT LEAST TWO THIRDS OF THE COUNTRY AND THE DEVOLUTION OF POWER FROM THE CENTER TO THE REGIONS UNDER THE FIRST CONSTITUTION, THE SARDAUNA WAS AN IMMENSELY POWERFUL FIGURE. HE WAS A PRINCE OF THE SOKOTO RULING FAMILY BUT, REPORTEDLY, WAS REGARDED BY THE OPEN RULING SULTAN WITH SOME SUSPICION, AND SO THE SULTAN WAS HAPPY TO HAVE HIM OUT OF SOKOTO AND IN KADUNA. 7. THERE APPEARS TO BE NO DOUBT THAT THE SARDAUNA WAS A FIGURE LARGER THAN LIFE. HE WAS, TO BEGIN WITH, PHYSICALLY IMPOSING. BUT, FOR THOSE NORTHERN ELDERS WHO SERVED IN HIS GOVERNMENT AND ARE STILL ACTIVE (ISA KAITA, LIMAN CIROMA, AHMED TALIB, YAHAYA GUSAU, AMBASSADOR JOLLY TANKO YUSUF, MAITAMA SULE, AND MANY OTHERS), HIS INFLUENCE IS STILL PALPABLE. HE IS REGARDED AS INCORRUPTIBLE, DEEPLY CONCERNED TO MOVE THE NORTH FROM ITS CONDITION OF BACKWARDNESS, AND DEEPLY RELIGIOUS. HIS DEATH AT THE HANDS OF THE PERPETRATORS OF THE FIRST 1966 COUP IS CONSIDERED A MARTYRDOM AND THE HOUSE HE OCCUPIED IS A NORTHERN SHRINE (NOW THE HEADQUARTERS OF AREWA HOUSE, A RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION CENTER FOR NORTHERN NIGERIA). HIS PORTRAIT IS STILL HAWKED AT EVERY MAJOR GATHERING AND FUND LAUNCHING IN THE NORTH. 8. THOSE WHO REMEMBER THE SARDAUNA RECOUNT THE STORIES OF HIS VISITS THROUGHOUT THE NORTH, EVEN TO REMOTE AREAS ON THE MAMBILLA PLATEAU AND OTHER SETTLEMENTS OFF THE BEATEN TRACK. THEY WILL MENTION THE JOY WITH WHICH THE LOCAL INHABITANTS GREETED HIM, AND THOSE WHO SERVED IN HIS GOVERNMENT WILL EMPHASIZE THAT MOSLEM, CHRISTIAN, AND PAGAN ALIKE GAVE HIM THEIR ALLEGIANCE. THE SARDAUNA’S PROGRESSES THROUGHOUT THE NORTH INVOLVED DISTRIBUTION OF CLOTH AND SMALL HOUSEHOLD WARES, AS WELL AS COMMITMENTS TO CONSTRUCT SCHOOLS AND OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY. FROM MORE IMPARTIAL SOURCES, WE LEARN THAT THE GOODIES WERE ACTUALLY DISTRIBUTED TO THOSE VILLAGES AND PERSONS WHO CONVERTED TO ISLAM; EVEN VILLAGES WHICH HAD BEEN MOSLEM FOR SOME TIME CLAIMED TO HAVE RECENTLY CONVERTED IN ORDER TO COLLECT THE “DASH.” ONE CHRISTIAN CONTACT OF THE CONSULATE WHO HAILS FROM LOKOJA REMEMBERS SXWNDIN WITH HIS SCHOOL CLASS ON THE SIDE OF THE ROAD TO WELCOME THU SARDAUNA TO KOGI DISTRICT. WHEN, AFTER A LONG DELAY, THE PREMIER ACTUALLY APPEARED, HE RESPONDED TO THE WELCOME BY REMARKING AUDIBLY WITHIN OUR CONTACT’S HEARING, “IS THERE SUCH A PLACE AS KOGI DISTRICT?” OUR CONTACT HAS NEVER FORGOTTEN THE IMPRESSION THIS MADE ON HIM. 9. THIS HISTORY HAS SOME RELEVANCE TO POLITICS TODAY SINCE MUCH OF THE SARDAUNA’S STYLE CARRIES OVER. THE CIVILIAN GOVERNORS OF THE ABORTEDHZHIRD REPUBLIC FROM THE NORTHERN STATES CONSIDERED THEIR STATES “MOSLEM,” AS THOUGH IT WAS NORMAL TO GIVE STATE MONEY TO MOSLEM FUND RAISINGS. THE BABANGIDA HABIT OF FINANCING GOVERNMENT BY “PERSONAL” DONATION MAY ALSO REFLECT THE SARDAUNA’S STYLE. WE OBSERVE IN THE NORTH LITTLE UNDERSTANDING OF THE NECESSITY FOR A GOVERNMENT TO BE NEUTRAL IN MATTERS OF RELIGION, EXCEPT FOR CHRISTIANS LIVING IN PREDOMINATELY MOSLEM AREAS. IN SOME STATES, SUCH AS KADUNA OR PLATEAU, THE DEPUTY GOVERNORS WERE ADHERENTS OF THE OPPOSITE RELIGION AND SOME EFFORT WAS MADE TO MAKE EQUAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO BOTH RELIGIOUS OR TO SEND EQUAL NUMBERS OF PERSONS ON BOTH THE HAJJ AND THE “CHRISTIAN PILGRIMAGE” TO ROME AND JERUSALEM. THE THIRD REPUBLIC —————— 10. BY FORCING THE NASCENT POLITICAL PARTIES OF THE THIRD REPUBLIC INTO TWO COALITIMNS CALLA NRC AND SDP, BABANGIDA’S TRANSITION DID NOT CHANGE POLITICS IN THE NORTH IN ANY FUNDAMENTAL WAY. THE TRADITIONAL, FAR NORTH GENERALLY FELL INTO THE NRC, WHILE THE “PROGRESSIVEE NORTH (BTRNO, YOBE, KANO CITY, AND THE MIDDLE BELT) WERE STRONG FOR THE SDP. EACH PARTY MADE ITS TRADITIONAL ALLIANCES WITH THE GROUPS IN THE SOUTH — THE “ROGRESSIVES” WITH THE YORUBA AND THE “TRADITIONALISTS” WITH THE EAST. 11. WHAT WAS PROBABLY MORE IMPORTANT FOR THE FUTURE WAS THE EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE BABANGIDA THEORISTS TO ELIMINATE THE “OLDBREED” FROM THE PLAYING FIELD AND ENCOURAGE THE EMERGENCE OF “NEWBREED” POLITICIANS. SINCE THE BAMNING EVEN FROM POLITICAL ACTIVITY AND SUPPORT OF CANDIDATES ON THE PART OF THE OLDBREED REMAINED IN FORCE THROUGH THE GUBERNATORIAL ELECTIONS OF DECEMBER 1991, THE LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, GOVERNORS, AND STATE HOUSES OF ASSEMBLY ELECTED WERE COMPOSED ALMOST ENTIRELY OF YOUNGER, POLITICALLY INEXPERIENCED PEOPLE. A NUMBER OF NORTHERN OBSERVERS HAVE REMARKED THAT, IN THIS PART OF THE COUNTRY AT LEAST, THIS DID NOT SERVE THE PUBLIC WELL. THE NORTHERNERS AT THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE HAD, FOR EXAMPLE, ARGUED AGAINST THE EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTIVE OFFICE, SINCE THIS WOULD ELIMINATE A NUMBER OF RESPECTED LOCAL LEADERS WHO HAD LITTLE SCHOOLING. NORTHERNERS MAINTAIN THAT THE SOUTHERN REPRESENTATIVES PUSHED THIS THROUGH, AND THAT THE SOUTH HAD MUCH BETTER LOCAL GOVERNMENT CHAIRMEN ON BALANCE THUNHLE NORHEP CZIOLDERPDMOEUN OF TH COMUNITIES IN THE SOUTH ARE FAR MORE LIKELY TO HAVE FINISHED SECONDARY SCHOOL. 12. THE RECENT ABORTED TRANSITION ALSO ADVANCED FISSURES ALONG GENERATIONAL LINES. ACCORDING TO THE OLD NPC/NPN/NRC TRADITION, THE PARTY ELDERS ARE SUPPOSED TO CONVENE AND DECIDE WHO THE CANDIDATE WILL BE. THE FITS AND STARTS OF BANNING AND UNBANNING OHOROUGHLYHDIQNUPTED THIS PROCESS THE LAST TPME AROUND. WHEN THE OLDBREED WERE UNBANNED, ADAMU CIROMA WAS ABLE TO MAKE A BID FOR THE NRC NOMINATION AND EVERYONE EXPECTED UMARU SHINKAFI, HIS JUNIOR, WOULD YIELD THE FLOOR. SHINKAFI REFUSED TO DO THIS. AFTER THE WHOLE “BAND OF 23” WAS BANNED AND THE PRIMARIES OF ’92 WERE CANCELLED, OPTION A4 WAS ADOPTED. HERE AGAIN, THE NEWBREED LIKE BASHIR TOFA SEIZED THE ADVANTAGE OFFERED OF ELIMINATING RIVALS AT THE EARLIEST STAGES BY SIZABLE PAYOFFS. TOFA LOPPED OFF THE CHALLENGE IN KANO STATE FROM AMINU WALI AND IN KADUNA FROM GOWON AND, IN SO DOING, DEEPLY OFFENDED THE “ELDERS.” THEIR REFUSAL TO CAMPAIGN FOR HIM OR, INDEED, TO VOTE FOR HIM, GOES A LONG WAY TO EXPLAIN THE MASSIVE SUPPORT FOR ABIOLA IN PLACES LIKE KANO AND BAUCHI. 13. QUITE A NUMBER OF NORTHERN SDP ADHERENTS NOW OPENLY CHALLENGE WHAT THEY SEE AS THE DEAD HAND OF THE TRADITIONAL RULERS AND THE OLDER POLITICAL GENERATION. THEY REFUSE TO SEE WHY THEY SHOULD AUTOMATICALLY BOW TO THE DECISIONS OF THE ELDERS. MANY CONTEMPTUOUSLY DISMISS THE EFFORTS OF THE TRADITIONAL RULERS TO PULL STRINGS BEHIND THE SCENES. SO FAR, THESE JUNIORS ARE STILL SWIMMING AGAINST THE TIDE, BUT THEY DO REPRESENT THE FORCES OF THE FUTURE. THE DEAD SARDAUNA AND THE NORTHERN TRADITION HE INSTITUTIONALIZED IS FADING FROM THE MEMORIES OF THE YOUNGER GENERATION. THE “NEWBREED” DO, IN THIS SENSE AT LEAST, REPRESENT A MORE GENUINELY DEMOCRATIC AND LESS FEUDAL ORGANIZATION OF POLITICS. THE ROAD AHEAD ————– 14. ONCE POLITICS RETURN OPENLY TO NIGERIA, THE NORTH IS POISED TO REENTER THE FRAY. SHORTLY AFTER THE ANNULLMENT OF THE JUNE 12 ELECTION, VARIOUS MEETINGS OF NORTHERN POLITICIANS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN THE PRESS. ONE, SPEARHEADED BY FORMER SECRETARY TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (UNDER OBASANJO), ALHAJI LIMAN CIROMA, COALESCED AROUND THE EFFORT TO FORM A “NATIONAL GOVERNMENT” TO TAKE OVER FROM BABANGIDA. THE ORIGINAL IDEA OF THIS GROUP WAS TO FORM A GOVERNMENT MADE UP OF POLITICIANS OF ALL STRIPES; WHAT THEY GOT WAS SHONEKAN’S INTERIM NATIONAL GOVERNMENT WHICH FELL SHORT IN MANY IMPORTANT WAYS OF WHAT THE GROUW HAD HOPEDTO FASHON. NEVERTHELESS, ADAMU CIROMA, BAM,:- 57174, AMINU SALEH,DALHATU TAFIDA, AND S.B. DANIYAN IN THE CURRENT CABINET ARE MOST LIKELY NOMINEES FROM THIS GROUP. LIMAN CIROMA CONTINUES TBSPSXVA INLUEZAAL ROLE BEHID THE SCENES, AS WITNESS HIS AHMADU BELLO MEMORIAL LECTURE AND THE ORGANIZATION OF THE AREWA HOUSE WORKSHOP ON “THE STATE OF THE NATION: WHICH WAY FORWARD?” CONCERNING THIS LATTER IN-GATHERING OF THE NORTHERN (AMD SOME SOUTHERN) POLITICAL ELITE, THE FIRST PLAN TO ORGANIZE IT OPENLY AS A PREPARATORY SEMINAR FOR THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE WAS LATER CHANGED TO PLACE IT UNDER THE AUSPICES OF AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY. THIS GAVE IT A THIN VEIL OF LEGITIMACY CONSIDERING THE CONTINUING PROHIBITION ON POLITICAL MEETINGS AND ORGANIZATIONS. 15. ALTHOUGH, IN OUR OPINION, THE GROUP AROUND LIMAN CIROMA REPRESENTS THE GENUINE OLD GUARD NORTHERN POLITICOS, ANOTHER GROUP BEGAN MEETING DURING THE SUMMER OF 1993, CALLING ITSELF THE “NORTHERN ELDERS.” THIS WAS SPEARHEADED BY SUCH PERSONS AS ABDULRAHMAN OKENE AND MAITAMA SULE WHO GAVE A CERTAIN COVER, AS OLDBREED FORMER CIVIL SERVANTS, TO THE EFFORTS OF THE NORTHERN GOVERNORS TO COOPT THE LIMAN CIROMA GROUP. THIS GROUP MADE AN EFFORT TO ORGANIZE A CALL FOR IBB TO REMAIN IN OFFICE BEYOND AUGUST 27 WHICH, AS WE NOW KNOW, CAME TO NAUGHT. THOSE IN THE CURRENT CABINET MOST LIKELY ALIGNED WITH THIS GROUP ARE BASHIR DALHATU AND POSSIBLY WADA NAS WHO COMES FROM THE SHINKAFI WING OF THE NRC. MOST RECENTLY, HOWEVER, THE GROUP HELD A MEETING ON THE FRINGES OF THE AREWA HOUSE WORKSHIP AND ISSUED A DECLARATION CALLING FOR NATIONAL UNITY AND SUPPORTING THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE. 16. IF THE DEFUNCT NRC POLITICOS HAVE NOT YET PULLED THEMSELVES TOGETHER, THE SDP IS AN EVEN STRANGER SITUATION. FOR ONE THING, THEIR PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE WON THE NON-EVENT ON JUNE 12. FOR ANOTHER, BABA GANA KINGIBE, REPRESENTING ONE WING OF THE NORTHERN SDP, IS IN THE INNER CIRCLE OF THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT. ABUBAKAR RIMI AND SOLOMON LAR, MEMBERS OF THE CABINET, REPRESENT RESPECTIVELY THE RADICAL KANO TRADITION AND THE MIDDLE BELT CHRISTIANS. 17. AND THEN THERE IS LT. GEN. SHEHU MUSA YAR’ADUA (RTD). HE HAS MADE IT CLEAR HE DOES NOT SUPPORT THE ABACHA REGIME, NOR DOES HE CONSIDER IT CAME TO POWER LEGITIMATELY. RECENTLY, HIS STAR WAS GIVEN AN EVEN GREATER SHINE BY HIS SEEMINGLY POINTLESS DETENTION FOR FIVE DAYS. HE HAS PLENTY OF MONEY AND GREAT AMBITION. HE VERY LIKELY ALSO HAS A GOOD DEAL OF ABILITY TO RUN THE COUNTRY. IRONICALLY, HIS MAJOR DRAWBACK IS THE PIS FROM THE NORTH. MANY NORTHERNERS, INCLUDING PEOPLE LIKE LIMAN CIROMA, BELIEVE THAT, WHATEVER DECISIONS ARE MADE OR NOT MADE ON ROTATIONAL OFFICES AND ZONING AT THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE, IT WILL BE A GREAT MISTAKE IF THE NEXT ELECTED PRESIDENT IS FROM THE NORTH. BUT YAR’ADUA WANTS IT AND HE HAS MANY OF THE REQUIREMENTS — MONEY, ORGANIZATION, CLEAN HANDS IN THE CURRENT MESS — TO CLAIM A RIGHT TO RULE. CONCLUSION ———- 18. NORTHERN NIGERIAN POLITICS ARE PROBABLY IN A STATE OF MORE PROFOUND CHANGE THAN POLITICAL ARRANGEMENTS IN THE SOUTH. THE HEAVY HAImageND OF TRADITION HAS PERSISTED LONGER HERE, CAUSING INTERGENERATIONAL RESTIVENESS. THE FAULT LINES OF THE OLD NORTHERN REGION — BOTH RELIGION AND TRIBE — STILL EXIST AND IN MANY WAYS CUT DEEPER FOLLOWING EIGHT YEARS OF IBB’S EFFORTS TO EXACERBATE THEM. MOST NORTHERNERS BELIEVE THAT, SHOULD PUSH COME TO SHOVE AT THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE AND THE NATION START TO SPLIT UP, THE MIDDLE BELT WILL THROW IN ITS LOT WITH THE FAR NORTH AND “PROGRESSIVE” NORTHEAST. WE WOULDN’T WANT TO BE PRESSED ON THIS AT THE MOMENT. IT IS FAIR TO SAY THAT THE NORTH HAS NO INTENTION OF GIVING UP ON NATIONAL UNITY. NOR DO MAINLINE NORTHERN POLITICIANS INTEND, WE BELIEVE, TO TAKE “NON-NEGOTIABLE” STANDS THAT WILL GIVE THE SOUTHERNERS AMMUNITION. WEINLAND

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